A very impressive wood block engraving bust portrait of Frederick Douglass featured in on the cover of an. Original November 24th 1883 Vol. 738-752 full issue of Harper's Weekly. This issue was removed from a bound volume and is in excellent condition.Frederick Douglass was the main speaker at the 1883 National Colored Convention in Louisville, KY, using his great voice to rally against the injustices still encountered by former slaves in the era of Reconstruction. Black men from across the country came to the convention, united in their stand with. The countrys foremost African American abolitionist who himself had escaped slavery on the way to becoming a gifted orator. On this day, September 24, Douglass spoke not just to the men in attendance but also to a country that had freed the slaves but still looked upon his people in much he same way it had before emancipation in 1863. Exactly two months later, on Nov.
24, 1883, Douglass image was on the cover of. One of the leading and.Publications in the country whose articles ranged from social to political to the Civil War. Its wood-cut illustrations are legendary. As Id seen in many other photos, he was glancing to the right. Ill add this cover to my. The publication contained an article about him on page 743. Googling later, I found the article written by. An abolitionist who was editor of Harpers.
He wrote about Douglass birth into and escape from slavery, and his relentless campaign against it before the war and advocacy for civil rights after it. Frederick Douglass is the most conspicuous American of African descent, and his career is a striking illustration of the nature of free popular institutions, wrote Curtis. Born a slave, he is to-day, by his own energy and character and courage, an eminent citizen, and his life has been a constant and powerful plea for his people.
Over infinite disadvantage and prejudice, his patience, intelligence, capacity, and tenacity have triumphantly prevailed, and in himself he is a repudiation of the current assertions against the colored race. Douglasss address at the late Colored Convention showed a comprehension of the situation of the colored people in this country which justified the regard in which he is held, and which explains the leadership that he has held so long. This was Douglass first appearance on Harpers cover but not in the magazine. About him in an 1876 edition of the publication. In 1877, there was an illustration and mention of him being.Later, when Douglass died in February 1895, Harpers ran the 1883 illustration as part. I was curious about what triggered the Douglass cover and what specifically was going on in the country at the time.
During the year, he had spoken at meetings on the anniversary of the. Which had been signed by President Lincoln to take effect on Jan. One of the most momentous events was the U. Supreme Court ruling on the 1875 Civil Rights Act. At Lincoln Hall in Washington, Douglass had criticized the courts recent decision to nullify the act.
Slavery had been abolished and several African Americans had been sent to Congress, but the issues facing black people had not changed. They were still denied full rights. The act granted equal rights.
To all people in the United States regardless of race or color or previous condition of servitude in public accommodations and other areas. It also provided for compensation for those denied their rights. The court ruled that under the Constitution, Congress could force states to act in a certain way, but not private people or businesses. The decision literally left African Americans at the mercy of Southerners and others who had enslaved them, and they were back where they started.Even before the justices decision, Douglass had noted this post-war sameness in his speech at the convention. He also addressed those folks some of them black who questioned why a convention for black people was needed now that they had been freed. These conventions were nothing new. Was the National Convention of Free People of Colour in 1830 in Philadelphia. There were also state and regional conventions during the 19. Century, all with the same purpose. Most were held in the north and west, and began appearing in the South in 1865. First African American womens convention.
Was held in Boston in 1895. Original version of Douglass speech. At the 1883 convention here and.
With apparent surprise, astonishment and impatience we have been asked: What more can the colored people of this country want than they now have, and what more is possible to them? It is said they were once slaves, they are now free; they were once subjects, they are now sovereigns; they were once outside of all American institutions, they are now inside of all and are a recognized part of the whole American people.
Why, then, do they hold Colored National Conventions and thus insist upon keeping up the color line between themselves and their white fellow countrymen? Even now, after twenty years of so-called emancipation, we are subject to lawless raids of midnight riders, who, with blackened faces, invade our homes and perpetrate the foulest of crimes upon us and our families. This condition of things is too flagrant and notorious to require specifications or proof. Thus in all the relations of life and death we are met by the color line.
We cannot ignore it if we would, and ought not if we could. It hunts us at midnight, it denies us accommodation in hotels and justice in the courts; excludes our children from schools, refuses our sons the chance to learn trades and compels us to pursue only such labor as will bring the least reward.
While we recognize the color line as a hurtful force, a mountain barrier to our progress, wounding our bleeding feet with its flinty rocks at every step, we do not despair. We are a hopeful people. This convention is a proof of our faith in you, in reason, in truth and justice our belief that prejudice, with all it malign accompaniments, may yet be removed by peaceful means; that, assisted by time and events and the growing enlightenment of both races, the color line will ultimately become harmless. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.For other uses, see Frederick Douglass (disambiguation). United States Minister Resident to Haiti. November 14, 1889 July 30, 1891. February 14, 1817 Cordova, Maryland. February 20, 1895 (aged about 78) Washington, D. Frederick Douglass born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey , c. February 20, 1895 was an American social reformer. He became a national leader of the abolitionist movement. Becoming famous for his oratory.
Accordingly, he was described by abolitionists in his time as a living counterexample to slaveholders' arguments that slaves lacked the intellectual capacity to function as independent American citizens. At the time found it hard to believe that such a great orator had once been a slave.
Describing his experiences as a slave in his Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. (1845), which became a bestseller and was influential in promoting the cause of abolition, as was his second book, My Bondage and My Freedom. Douglass was active campaigner for the rights of freed slaves and wrote his last autobiography, Life and Times of Frederick Douglass. First published in 1881 and revised in 1892, three years before his death, the book covers events both during and after the Civil War.
Douglass also actively supported women's suffrage. And held several public offices. Without his permission, Douglass became the first African-American. Nominated for Vice President of the United States as the running mate and Vice Presidential nominee.
On the Equal Rights Party. And in making alliances across racial and ideological divides, as well as in the liberal values. When radical abolitionists, under the motto "No Union with Slaveholders", criticized Douglass's willingness to engage in dialogue with slave owners. He replied: I would unite with anybody to do right and with nobody to do wrong. Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey was born into slavery.His birthplace was likely his grandmother's cabin. And west of Tuckahoe Creek. In his first autobiography, Douglass stated: I have no accurate knowledge of my age, never having seen any authentic record containing it. However, based on the extant records of Douglass's former owner, Aaron Anthony, historian Dickson J. Preston determined that Douglass was born in February 1818. Though the exact date of his birth is unknown, he chose to celebrate February 14 as his birthday, remembering that his mother called him her Little Valentine.
Douglass was of mixed race. Which likely included Native American. On his mother's side, as well as European. In contrast, his father was "almost certainly white", according to historian David W.
In his 2018 biography of Douglass. Douglass said his mother Harriet Bailey gave him his name Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey and, after he escaped to the North in September 1838, he took the surname Douglass. Having already dropped his two middle names. He later wrote of his earliest times with his mother. The opinion waswhispered that my master was my father; but of the correctness of this opinion I know nothing.
My mother and I were separated when I was but an infant. It is a common custom, in the part of Maryland from which I ran away, to part children from their mothers at a very early age. I do not recollect of ever seeing my mother by the light of day.She was with me in the night. She would lie down with me, and get me to sleep, but long before I waked she was gone. After separation from his mother during infancy, young Frederick lived with his maternal grandmother. Betsy Bailey, who was also a slave, and his maternal grandfather Isaac, who was free. Betsy would live until 1849.
Frederick's mother remained on the plantation about 12 miles (19 km) away, only visiting Frederick a few times before her death when he was 7 years old. At the age of 6, Frederick was separated from his grandparents and moved to the Wye House.Where Aaron Anthony worked as overseer. After Anthony died in 1826, Douglass was given to Lucretia Auld, wife of Thomas Auld, who sent him to serve Thomas' brother Hugh Auld in Baltimore. Douglass felt that he was lucky to be in the city, where he said slaves were almost freemen. Compared to those on plantations. When Douglass was about 12, Hugh Auld's wife Sophia began teaching him the alphabet.
From the day he arrived, she saw to it that Douglass was properly fed and clothed, and that he slept in a bed with sheets and a blanket. Douglass described her as a kind and tender-hearted woman, who treated him as she supposed one human being ought to treat another. Hugh Auld disapproved of the tutoring, feeling that literacy. Would encourage slaves to desire freedom. Douglass later referred to this as the first decidedly antislavery.Lecture he had ever heard. "'Very well, thought I,'" wrote Douglass.'Knowledge unfits a child to be a slave. I instinctively assented to the proposition, and from that moment I understood the direct pathway from slavery to freedom. Under her husband's influence, Sophia came to believe that education and slavery were incompatible and one day snatched a newspaper away from Douglass.
She stopped teaching him altogether and hid all potential reading materials, including her Bible, from him. In his autobiography, Douglass related how he learned to read from white children in the neighborhood, and by observing the writings of the men he worked with. Douglass continued, secretly, to teach himself to read and write. He later often said, knowledge is the pathway from slavery to freedom.As Douglass began to read newspapers, pamphlets, political materials, and books of every description, this new realm of thought led him to question and condemn the institution of slavery. In later years, Douglass credited The Columbian Orator.
An anthology that he discovered at about age 12, with clarifying and defining his views on freedom and human rights. First published in 1797, the book is a classroom reader, containing essays, speeches, and dialogues, to assist students in learning reading and grammar.
He later learned that his mother had also been literate, about which he would later declare. When Douglass was hired out to William Freeland, he taught other slaves on the plantation to read the New Testament. At a weekly Sunday school. As word spread, the interest among slaves in learning to read was so great that in any week, more than 40 slaves would attend lessons. For about six months, their study went relatively unnoticed.
While Freeland remained complacent about their activities, other plantation owners became incensed about their slaves being educated. One Sunday they burst in on the gathering, armed with clubs and stones, to disperse the congregation permanently. In 1833, Thomas Auld took Douglass back from Hugh ("[a]s a means of punishing Hugh, " Douglass later wrote). Thomas sent Douglass to work for Edward Covey.A poor farmer who had a reputation as a "slave-breaker". Douglass so frequently that his wounds had little time to heal. Douglass later said the frequent whippings broke his body, soul, and spirit. The 16-year-old Douglass finally rebelled against the beatings, however, and fought back. After Douglass won a physical confrontation, Covey never tried to beat him again. Recounting his beatings at Covey's farm in Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave , Douglass described himself as a man transformed into a brute! Still, Douglass came to see his physical fight with Covey as life-transforming, and introduced the story in his autobiography as such: You have seen how a man was made a slave; you shall see how a slave was made a man. Douglass first tried to escape from Freeland, who had hired him from his owner, but was unsuccessful. In 1837, Douglass met and fell in love with Anna Murray. Woman in Baltimore about five years his senior. Her free status strengthened his belief in the possibility of gaining his own freedom.
Douglass's wife for 44 years, portrait ca. On September 3, 1838, Douglass successfully escaped by boarding a northbound train of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad. The area where he boarded was thought to be a short distance east of the train depot, in a recently developed neighborhood between the modern neighborhoods of Harbor East.
This depot was at President and Fleet Streets, east of "The Basin". On the northwest branch of the Patapsco River. Research cited in 2021, however, suggests that Douglass in fact boarded the train at the Canton Depot of the Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore Railroad on Boston Street, in the Canton neighborhood of Baltimore, further east. Young Douglass reached Havre de Grace, Maryland.
In the northeast corner of the state, along the southwest shore of the Susquehanna River. Which flowed into the Chesapeake Bay. Although this placed him only some 20 miles (32 km) from the MarylandPennsylvania state line, it was easier to continue by rail through Delaware, another slave state. Dressed in a sailor's uniform.Provided to him by Murray, who also gave him part of her savings to cover his travel costs, he carried identification papers and protection papers. That he had obtained from a free black seaman. Douglass crossed the wide Susquehanna River by the railroad's steam-ferry at Havre de Grace to Perryville. On the opposite shore, in Cecil County. Then continued by train across the state line to Wilmington, Delaware. A large port at the head of the Delaware Bay. From there, because the rail line was not yet completed, he went by steamboat. Further northeast to the "Quaker City" of Philadelphia. He continued to the safe house of noted abolitionist David Ruggles. His entire journey to freedom took less than 24 hours. Douglass later wrote of his arrival in New York City. I have often been asked, how I felt when first I found myself on free soil. And my readers may share the same curiosity. There is scarcely anything in my experience about which I could not give a more satisfactory answer. A new world had opened upon me. If life is more than breath, and the "quick round of blood, " I lived more in one day than in a year of my slave life. It was a time of joyous excitement which words can but tamely describe.
In a letter written to a friend soon after reaching New York, I said: I felt as one might feel upon escape from a den of hungry lions. Anguish and grief, like darkness and rain, may be depicted; but gladness and joy, like the rainbow, defy the skill of pen or pencil.
Once Douglass had arrived, he sent for Murray to follow him north to New York. She brought the basics for them to set up a home. They were married on September 15, 1838, by a black Presbyterian.
Minister, just eleven days after Douglass had reached New York. At first they adopted Johnson as their married name, to divert attention. The couple settled in New Bedford, Massachusetts.
Center, full of former slaves, in 1838, moving to Lynn, Massachusetts. After meeting and staying with Nathan and Mary Johnson. They adopted Douglass as their married name.
Douglass had grown up using his mother's surname of Bailey; after escaping slavery he had changed his surname first to Stanley and then to Johnson. In New Bedford, the latter was such a common name that he wanted one that was more distinctive, and asked Nathan Johnson to choose a suitable surname. After having read the poem The Lady of the Lake. In which two of the principal characters have the surname Douglas.Of the Johnsons, where Douglass and his wife lived in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Douglass thought of joining a white Methodist Church.
But was disappointed, from the beginning, upon finding that it was segregated. Later, he joined the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. First established in New York City, which counted among its members Sojourner Truth.
He became a licensed preacher in 1839. Which helped him to hone his oratorical skills. He held various positions, including steward. In 1840, Douglass delivered a speech in Elmira, New York. Then a station on the Underground Railroad.
In which a black congregation would form years later, becoming the region's largest church by 1940. Douglass also joined several organizations in New Bedford, and regularly attended abolitionist meetings. He subscribed to William Lloyd Garrison.S weekly newspaper, The Liberator. He later said that no face and form ever impressed me with such sentiments [of the hatred of slavery] as did those of William Lloyd Garrison. " So deep was this influence that in his last biography, Douglass said "his paper took a place in my heart second only to The Bible. Garrison was likewise impressed with Douglass, and had written about his anti- colonialist.
Stance in The Liberator as early as 1839. Douglass first heard Garrison speak in 1841, at a lecture that Garrison gave in Liberty Hall, New Bedford. At another meeting, Douglass was unexpectedly invited to speak. After telling his story, Douglass was encouraged to become an anti-slavery lecturer.A few days later, Douglass spoke at the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society. S annual convention, in Nantucket. Then 23 years old, Douglass conquered his nervousness and gave an eloquent speech about his rough life as a slave. Abolitionist and one of Douglass's first friends in the North.
While living in Lynn, Douglass engaged in early protest against segregated transportation. In September 1841, at Lynn Central Square station.
Douglass and friend James N. Were thrown off an Eastern Railroad. Train because Douglass refused to sit in the segregated railroad coach.In 1843, Douglass joined other speakers in the American Anti-Slavery Society. S "Hundred Conventions" project, a six-month tour at meeting halls throughout the eastern. During this tour, slavery supporters frequently accosted Douglass.
At a lecture in Pendleton, Indiana. An angry mob chased and beat Douglass before a local Quaker family, the Hardys, rescued him. His hand was broken in the attack; it healed improperly and bothered him for the rest of his life.A stone marker in Falls Park in the Pendleton Historic District. In 1847, Frederick Douglass explained to Garrison, I have no love for America, as such; I have no patriotism. The Institutions of this Country do not know medo not recognize me as a man. Further information: Abolitionism in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Douglass's best-known work is his first autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. Written during his time in Lynn, Massachusetts. At the time, some skeptics questioned whether a black man could have produced such an eloquent piece of literature. The book received generally positive reviews and became an immediate bestseller. Within three years, it had been reprinted nine times, with 11,000 copies circulating in the United States.
It was also translated into French and Dutch. Douglass published three versions of his autobiography during his lifetime (and revised the third of these), each time expanding on the previous one. In 1855, Douglass published My Bondage and My Freedom. In 1881, after the Civil War, Douglass published Life and Times of Frederick Douglass. Which he revised in 1892.
Travels to Ireland and Great Britain. Plaque to Frederick Douglass, West Bell St. Douglass in 1847, around 29 years of age. Douglass's friends and mentors feared that the publicity would draw the attention of his ex-owner, Hugh Auld, who might try to get his "property" back. They encouraged Douglass to tour Ireland, as many former slaves had done.
Douglass set sail on the Cambria for Liverpool. England, on August 16, 1845. He traveled in Ireland as the Great Famine.
The feeling of freedom from American racial discrimination. Eleven days and a half gone and I have crossed three thousand miles of the perilous deep. The chattel [slave] becomes a man. I gaze around in vain for one who will question my equal humanity, claim me as his slave, or offer me an insult.
I find myself regarded and treated at every turn with the kindness and deference paid to white people. We don't allow niggers in here! Still, Douglass was astounded by the extreme levels of poverty he encountered, much of it reminding him of his experiences in slavery. In a letter to William Lloyd Garrison. Douglass wrote I see much here to remind me of my former condition, and I confess I should be ashamed to lift up my voice against American slavery, but that I know the cause of humanity is one the world over.He who really and truly feels for the American slave, cannot steel his heart to the woes of others; and he who thinks himself an abolitionist, yet cannot enter into the wrongs of others, has yet to find a true foundation for his anti-slavery faith. He also met and befriended the Irish nationalist. And strident abolitionist Daniel O'Connell. Who was to be a great inspiration. Douglass spent two years in Ireland and Great Britain, lecturing in churches and chapels.
His draw was such that some facilities were "crowded to suffocation". One example was his hugely popular London Reception Speech , which Douglass delivered in May 1846 at Alexander Fletcher. Douglass remarked that in England he was treated not as a color, but as a man. In 1846, Douglass met with Thomas Clarkson. One of the last living British abolitionists.
Who had persuaded Parliament to abolish slavery in Great Britain's colonies. During this trip Douglass became legally free, as British supporters led by Anna Richardson. And her sister-in-law Ellen of Newcastle upon Tyne. Soon after the death of Daniel O'Connell.In the 21st century, historical plaques were installed on buildings in Cork. Ireland, and London to celebrate Douglass's visit: the first is on the Imperial Hotel in Cork and was unveiled on August 31, 2012; the second is on the façade of Waterford City Hall, unveiled on October 7, 2013. It commemorates his speech there on October 9, 1845. The third plaque adorns Nell Gwynn House. In London, at the site of an earlier house where Douglass stayed with the British abolitionist George Thompson. Douglass spent time in Scotland and was appointed Scotland's Antislavery agent.
He made anti-slavery speeches and wrote letters back to the USA. He considered the city of Edinburgh to be elegant, grand and very welcoming.Maps of the places in the city that were important to his stay are held by the National Library of Scotland. A plaque and a mural on Gilmore Place in Edinburgh.
Mark his stay there in 1846. A variety of collaborative projects are currently [in 2021] underway to commemorate Frederick Douglasss journey and visit to Ireland in the 19th century. Return to the United States. Douglass circa 184752, around his early 30s. After returning to the U.Douglass started publishing his first abolitionist newspaper, the North Star. From the basement of the Memorial AME Zion Church in Rochester, New York. Was co-editor but Douglass didn't feel he brought in enough subscriptions, and they parted ways. The North Star' s motto was Right is of no Sex Truth is of no Color God is the Father of us all, and we are all brethren.
The AME Church and North Star vigorously opposed the mostly white American Colonization Society. And its proposal to send blacks back to Africa.Douglass also soon split with Garrison, perhaps because the North Star competed with Garrison's National Anti-Slavery Standard. And Marius Robinson's Anti-Slavery Bugle. Besides publishing the North Star and delivering speeches, Douglass also participated in the Underground Railroad. He and his wife provided lodging and resources in their home to more than four hundred escaped slaves.
Douglass also came to disagree with Garrison. Earlier Douglass had agreed with Garrison's position that the Constitution was pro-slavery, because of the three-fifths clause. Its compromises related to apportionment of Congressional seats, based on partial counting of slave populations with state totals; and protection of the international slave trade through 1807. Garrison had burned copies of the Constitution to express his opinion.
Published The Unconstitutionality of Slavery. (1846), which examined the United States Constitution. Douglass's change of opinion about the Constitution and his splitting from Garrison around 1847 became one of the abolitionist movement's most notable divisions. Douglass angered Garrison by saying that the Constitution could and should be used as an instrument in the fight against slavery.
In September 1848, on the tenth anniversary of his escape, Douglass published an open letter addressed to his former master, Thomas Auld, berating him for his conduct, and inquiring after members of his family still held by Auld. In the course of the letter, Douglass adeptly transitions from formal and restrained to familiar and then to impassioned. At one point he is the proud parent, describing his improved circumstances and the progress of his own four young children. But then he dramatically shifts tone.
Sir, a slaveholder never appears to me so completely an agent of hell, as when I think of and look upon my dear children. It is then that my feelings rise above my control. The grim horrors of slavery rise in all their ghastly terror before me, the wails of millions pierce my heart, and chill my blood. In a graphic passage, Douglass asked Auld how he would feel if Douglass had come to take away his daughter Amanda as a slave, treating her the way he and members of his family had been treated by Auld.
Yet in his conclusion Douglass shows his focus and benevolence, stating that he has "no malice towards him personally, " and asserts that, there is no roof under which you would be more safe than mine, and there is nothing in my house which you might need for comfort, which I would not readily grant. Indeed, I should esteem it a privilege, to set you an example as to how mankind ought to treat each other. In 1848, Douglass was the only African American to attend the Seneca Falls Convention. The first women's rights. Convention, in upstate New York.
Asked the assembly to pass a resolution asking for women's suffrage. Many of those present opposed the idea, including influential Quakers James. Douglass stood and spoke eloquently in favor of women's suffrage.He said that he could not accept the right to vote as a black man if women could not also claim that right. He suggested that the world would be a better place if women were involved in the political sphere. In this denial of the right to participate in government, not merely the degradation of woman and the perpetuation of a great injustice happens, but the maiming and repudiation of one-half of the moral and intellectual power of the government of the world.
After Douglass's powerful words, the attendees passed the resolution. In the wake of the Seneca Falls Convention, Douglass used an editorial in The North Star to press the case for women's rights. He recalled the "marked ability and dignity" of the proceedings, and briefly conveyed several arguments of the convention and feminist thought at the time. On the first count, Douglass acknowledged the "decorum" of the participants in the face of disagreement.
In the remainder, he discussed the primary document that emerged from the conference, a Declaration of Sentiments, and the "infant" feminist cause. Strikingly, he expressed the belief that [a] discussion of the rights of animals would be regarded with far more complacency... Than would be a discussion of the rights of women, and Douglass noted the link between abolitionism and feminism, the overlap between the communities. His opinion as the editor of a prominent newspaper carried weight, and he stated the position of the North Star explicitly: We hold woman to be justly entitled to all we claim for man. " This letter, written a week after the convention, reaffirmed the first part of the paper's slogan, "right is of no sex.
Giving Blacks the right to vote was being debated, Douglass split with the Stanton-led faction of the women's rights movement. Douglass supported the amendment, which would grant suffrage to black men.
Stanton opposed the 15th Amendment because it limited the expansion of suffrage to black men; she predicted its passage would delay for decades the cause for women's right to vote. Stanton argued that American women and black men should band together to fight for universal suffrage. And opposed any bill that split the issues.
Douglass and Stanton both knew that there was not yet enough male support for women's right to vote, but that an amendment giving black men the vote could pass in the late 1860s. Stanton wanted to attach women's suffrage to that of black men so that her cause would be carried to success.Douglass thought such a strategy was too risky, that there was barely enough support for black men's suffrage. He feared that linking the cause of women's suffrage to that of black men would result in failure for both. Douglass argued that white women, already empowered by their social connections to fathers, husbands, and brothers, at least vicariously had the vote.
African-American women, he believed, would have the same degree of empowerment as white women once African-American men had the vote. Douglass assured the American women that at no time had he ever argued against women's right to vote. Frederick Douglass in 1856, around 38 years of age.
Meanwhile, in 1851, Douglass merged the North Star with Gerrit Smith. S Liberty Party Paper to form Frederick Douglass' Paper , which was published until 1860. On July 5, 1852, Douglass delivered an address to the ladies of the Rochester Anti-Slavery Sewing Society. This speech eventually became known as What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July? "; one biographer called it "perhaps the greatest antislavery oration ever given.
In 1853, he was a prominent attendee of the radical abolitionist National African American Convention in Rochester. Douglass's was one of five names attached to the address of the convention to the people of the United States published under the title, The Claims of Our Common Cause , along with Amos Noë Freeman. Like many abolitionists, Douglass believed that education would be crucial for African Americans to improve their lives; he was an early advocate for school desegregation. In the 1850s, Douglass observed that New York's facilities and instruction for African-American children were vastly inferior to those for whites.
Douglass called for court action to open all schools to all children. He said that full inclusion within the educational system was a more pressing need for African Americans than political issues such as suffrage.Douglass argued against John Brown's plan to attack the arsenal at Harpers Ferry , painting by Jacob Lawrence. On March 12, 1859, Douglass met with radical abolitionists John Brown. And others at William Webb's house in Detroit to discuss emancipation. Douglass met Brown again when Brown visited his home two months before leading the raid on Harpers Ferry. Brown penned his Provisional Constitution.
During his two-week stay with Douglass. Also staying with Douglass for over a year was Shields Green. That Douglass was helping, as he often did. The secret meeting in the Chambersburg stone quarry. Shortly before the raid, Douglass, taking Green with him, travelled from Rochester, via New York City, to Chambersburg, Pennsylvania.John Brown's communications headquarters. He was recognized there by Blacks, who asked him for a lecture. Douglass agreed, although he said his only topic was slavery. Sat in the audience; Shields Green joined him on the stage. A white reporter, referring to "Nigger Democracy", called it a "flaming address" by "the notorious Negro Orator". There, in an abandoned stone quarry for secrecy, Douglass and Green met with Brown and John Henri Kagi. After discussions lasting, as Douglass put it, "a day and a night", he disappointed Brown by declining to join him, considering the mission suicidal.
To Douglass's surprise, Green went with Brown instead of returning to Rochester with Douglass. Anne Brown said that Green told her that Douglass promised to pay him on his return, but David Blight. Called this much more ex post facto bitterness than reality. Almost all that is known about this incident comes from Douglass.
It is clear that it was of immense importance to him, both as a turning point in his lifenot accompanying John Brownand its importance in his public image. The meeting was not revealed by Douglass for 20 years. He first disclosed it in his speech on John Brown at Storer College. He again referred to it stunningly in his last Autobiography.
After the raid, which took place between October 16 and 18, 1859, Douglass was accused both of supporting Brown and of not supporting him enough. He was nearly arrested on a Virginia warrant. And fled for a brief time to Canada before proceeding onward to England on a previously-planned lecture tour, arriving near the end of November. During his lecture tour of Great Britain, on March 26, 1860, Douglass delivered a speech before the Scottish Anti-Slavery Society in Glasgow. The Constitution of the United States: Is It Pro-Slavery or Antislavery?, outlining his views on the American Constitution. That month, on the 13th, Douglass's youngest daughter Annie died in Rochester, New York. Just days shy of her 11th birthday.
Douglass sailed back from England the following month, traveling through Canada to avoid detection. Douglass's Storer College address (1881). Years later, in 1881, Douglass shared a stage at Storer College in Harpers Ferry. The prosecutor who secured Brown's conviction and execution.
Douglass considered photography very important in ending slavery and racism, and believed that the camera would not lie, even in the hands of a racist white, as photographs were an excellent counter to the many racist caricatures, particularly in blackface. He was the most photographed American of the 19th century, consciously using photography to advance his political views. He never smiled, specifically so as not to play into the racist caricature of a happy slave.He tended to look directly into the camera to confront the viewer, with a stern look. As a child, Douglass was exposed to a number of religious sermons, and in his youth, he sometimes heard Sophia Auld reading the Bible.
In time, he became interested in literacy; he began reading and copying bible verses, and he eventually converted to Christianity. He described this approach in his last biography, Life and Times of Frederick Douglass. I was not more than thirteen years old, when in my loneliness and destitution I longed for some one to whom I could go, as to a father and protector. The preaching of a white Methodist minister, named Hanson, was the means of causing me to feel that in God I had such a friend. He thought that all men, great and small, bond and free, were sinners in the sight of God: that they were by nature rebels against His government; and that they must repent of their sins, and be reconciled to God through Christ.
I cannot say that I had a very distinct notion of what was required of me, but one thing I did know well: I was wretched and had no means of making myself otherwise. I consulted a good old colored man named Charles Lawson, and in tones of holy affection he told me to pray, and to cast all my care upon God.
This I sought to do; and though for weeks I was a poor, broken-hearted mourner, traveling through doubts and fears, I finally found my burden lightened, and my heart relieved. I loved all mankind, slaveholders not excepted, though I abhorred slavery more than ever. I saw the world in a new light, and my great concern was to have everybody converted. My desire to learn increased, and especially, did I want a thorough acquaintance with the contents of the Bible. Douglass was mentored by Rev.
Charles Lawson, and, early in his activism, he often included biblical allusions and religious metaphors in his speeches. Although a believer, he strongly criticized religious hypocrisy.And accused slaveholders of wickedness. Lack of morality, and failure to follow the Golden Rule. In this sense, Douglass distinguished between the "Christianity of Christ" and the "Christianity of America" and considered religious slaveholders and clergymen who defended slavery as the most brutal, sinful, and cynical of all who represented "wolves in sheep's clothing". Notably, in a famous oration given in the Corinthian Hall of Rochester. He sharply criticized the attitude of religious people who kept silent about slavery, and held that religious ministers committed a blasphemy.
When they taught it as sanctioned by religion. He considered that a law passed to support slavery was "one of the grossest infringements of Christian Liberty" and said that pro-slavery clergymen within the American Church "stripped the love of God of its beauty, and leave the throne of religion a huge, horrible, repulsive form", and "an abomination in the sight of God". Of ministers like John Chase Lord, Leonard Elijah Lathrop, Ichabod Spencer. He said that they taught, against the Scriptures, that "we ought to obey man's law before the law of God". He further asserted, in speaking of the American church, however, let it be distinctly understood that I mean the great mass of the religious organizations of our land.There are exceptions, and I thank God that there are. Noble men may be found, scattered all over these Northern States... Of Syracuse, and my esteemed friend Robert R. He maintained that "upon these men lies the duty to inspire our ranks with high religious faith and zeal, and to cheer us on in the great mission of the slave's redemption from his chains". In addition, he called religious people to embrace abolitionism, stating, let the religious press, the pulpit, the Sunday school, the conference meeting, the great ecclesiastical, missionary, Bible and tract associations of the land array their immense powers against slavery and slave-holding; and the whole system of crime and blood would be scattered to the winds.
During his visits to the United Kingdom between 1846 and 1848, Douglass asked British Christians never to support American churches that permitted slavery. And he expressed his happiness to know that a group of ministers in Belfast had refused to admit slaveholders as members of the Church. On his return to the United States, Douglass founded the North Star , a weekly publication with the motto Right is of no sex, Truth is of no color, God is the Father of us all, and we are all Brethren. Douglass later wrote a letter to his former slaveholder, in which he denounced him for leaving Douglass's family illiterate.
Your wickedness and cruelty committed in this respect on your fellow creatures, are greater than all the stripes you have laid upon my back or theirs. It is an outrage upon the soul, a war upon the immortal spirit, and one for which you must give account at the bar of our common Father and Creator. Letter to His Old Master.
To my Old Master Thomas Auld. Sometimes considered a precursor of a non-denominational. Douglass was a deeply spiritual man, as his home continues to show. The fireplace mantle features busts of two of his favorite philosophers, David Friedrich Strauss.
Author of "The Life of Jesus", and Ludwig Feuerbach. Author of "The Essence of Christianity".
In addition to several Bibles and books about various religions in the library, images of angels and Jesus are displayed, as well as interior and exterior photographs of Washington's Metropolitan African Methodist Episcopal Church. Throughout his life, Douglass had linked that individual experience with social reform, and like other Christian abolitionists, he followed practices such as abstaining from tobacco, alcohol and other substances that he believed corrupted body and soul. By the time of the Civil War, Douglass was one of the most famous black men in the country, known for his orations on the condition of the black race and on other issues such as women's rights.
His eloquence gathered crowds at every location. His reception by leaders in England and Ireland added to his stature. Fight for emancipation and suffrage. A 1863 Broadside listing Douglass as a speaker calling men of color to arms.
Douglass and the abolitionists argued that because the aim of the Civil War was to end slavery, African Americans should be allowed to engage in the fight for their freedom. Douglass publicized this view in his newspapers and several speeches. In August 1861 he published an account of the First Battle of Bull Run. Noting that some blacks were already in the Confederate ranks. A few weeks later, Douglass brought the subject up again, quoting a witness to the battle who said they saw black Confederates with muskets.
On their shoulders and bullets in their pockets. Douglass conferred with President Abraham Lincoln. In 1863 on the treatment of black soldiers. And with President Andrew Johnson. On the subject of black suffrage.President Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation. Which took effect on January 1, 1863, declared the freedom of all slaves in Confederate-held territory. Slaves in Union-held areas were not covered by this war-measures act; slaves in Union-held areas and Northern states were freed with the adoption of the 13th Amendment on December 6, 1865. Douglass described the spirit of those awaiting the proclamation: We were waiting and listening as for a bolt from the sky... By the dim light of the stars for the dawn of a new day...
We were longing for the answer to the agonizing prayers of centuries. Who was the candidate of the abolitionist Radical Democracy Party. Douglass was disappointed that President Lincoln did not publicly endorse suffrage for black freedmen.
Douglass believed that since African-American men were fighting for the Union in the American Civil War, they deserved the right to vote. With the North no longer obliged to return slaves to their owners in the South, Douglass fought for equality for his people. He made plans with Lincoln to move liberated slaves out of the South. During the war, Douglass also helped the Union cause by serving as a recruiter for the 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment.His eldest son, Charles Douglass, joined the 54th Massachusetts Regiment, but was ill for much of his service. Lewis Douglass fought at the Battle of Fort Wagner.
Another son, Frederick Douglass Jr. Also served as a recruiter.
The post-war (1865) ratification of the 13th Amendment. Provided for citizenship and equal protection under the law. Protected all citizens from being discriminated against in voting because of race.
On April 14, 1876, Douglass delivered the keynote speech at the unveiling of the Emancipation Memorial. In Washington's Lincoln Park. He spoke frankly about Lincoln, noting what he perceived as both positive and negative attributes of the late President. Calling Lincoln "the white man's president", Douglass criticized Lincoln's tardiness in joining the cause of emancipation, noting that Lincoln initially opposed the expansion of slavery but did not support its elimination.But Douglass also asked, Can any colored man, or any white man friendly to the freedom of all men, ever forget the night which followed the first day of January 1863. When the world was to see if Abraham Lincoln would prove to be as good as his word? He also said: Though Mr. Lincoln shared the prejudices of his white fellow-countrymen against the Negro, it is hardly necessary to say that in his heart of hearts he loathed and hated slavery... The crowd, roused by his speech, gave Douglass a standing ovation.
Lincoln's widow Mary Lincoln. Supposedly gave Lincoln's favorite walking-stick.
That walking-stick still rests in his final residence, "Cedar Hill", now preserved as the Frederick Douglass National Historic Site. After delivering the speech, Frederick Douglass immediately wrote to the National Republican newspaper in Washington (which published five days later, April 19), criticizing the statue's design and suggesting the park could be improved by more dignified monuments of free Black people. "The negro here, though rising, is still on his knees and nude, " Douglass wrote. What I want to see before I die is a monument representing the negro, not couchant on his knees like a four-footed animal, but erect on his feet like a man.Frederick Douglass in 1876, around 58 years of age. After the Civil War, Douglass continued to work for equality for African-Americans and women. Due to his prominence and activism during the war, Douglass received several political appointments. He served as president of the Reconstruction. Era Freedman's Savings Bank.
Meanwhile, white insurgents had quickly arisen in the South after the war, organizing first as secret vigilante. Groups, including the Ku Klux Klan. Armed insurgency took different forms. Powerful paramilitary groups included the White League.Both active during the 1870s in the Deep South. They operated as "the military arm of the Democratic Party", turning out Republican officeholders and disrupting elections. Starting 10 years after the war, Democrats regained political power in every state of the former Confederacy and began to reassert white supremacy. They enforced this by a combination of violence, late 19th-century laws imposing segregation. And a concerted effort to disfranchise.
New labor and criminal laws also limited their freedom. To combat these efforts, Douglass supported the presidential campaign of Ulysses S.
In 1870, Douglass started his last newspaper, the New National Era , attempting to hold his country to its commitment to equality. President Grant sent a Congressionally sponsored commission, accompanied by Douglass, on a mission to the West Indies to investigate if the annexation of Santo Domingo would be good for the United States. Grant believed annexation would help relieve the violent situation in the South by allowing African Americans their own state. Douglass and the commission favored annexation, however, Congress remained opposed to annexation.Douglass criticized Senator Charles Sumner. Who opposed annexation, stating if Sumner continued to oppose annexation he would regard him as the worst foe the colored race has on this continent.
Douglass's former residence in the U Street Corridor. He built 20002004 17th Street, NW.After the midterm elections, Grant signed the Civil Rights Act of 1871. (also known as the Klan Act), and the second and third Enforcement Acts. Grant used their provisions vigorously, suspending habeas corpus. In South Carolina and sending troops there and into other states. Under his leadership over 5,000 arrests were made.
Grant's vigor in disrupting the Klan made him unpopular among many whites, but earned praise from Douglass. A Douglass associate wrote that African Americans will ever cherish a grateful remembrance of [Grant's] name, fame and great services.In 1872, Douglass became the first African American nominated for Vice President of the United States, as Victoria Woodhull. S running mate on the Equal Rights Party. He was nominated without his knowledge. Douglass neither campaigned for the ticket nor acknowledged that he had been nominated. In that year, he was presidential elector. At large for the State of New York. And took that state's votes to Washington, D. However, in early June of that year, Douglass's third Rochester home, on South Avenue, burned down; arson was suspected. There was extensive damage to the house, its furnishings, and the grounds; in addition, sixteen volumes of the North Star and Frederick Douglass' Paper were lost.
Douglass then moved to Washington, D. Throughout the Reconstruction era, Douglass continued speaking, emphasizing the importance of work, voting rights and actual exercise of suffrage.
His speeches for the twenty-five years following the war emphasized work to counter the racism that was then prevalent in unions. In a November 15, 1867, speech he said A man's rights rest in three boxes. The ballot box, jury box and the cartridge box.
Let no man be kept from the ballot box because of his color. Let no woman be kept from the ballot box because of her sex. Douglass spoke at many colleges around the country, including Bates College.
In 1881, Douglass delivered at Storer College. In Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. A speech praising John Brown and revealing unknown information about their relationship, including their meeting in an abandoned stone quarry near Chambersburg shortly before the raid. Frederick Douglass after 1884 with his second wife Helen Pitts Douglass.
The woman standing is her sister Eva Pitts. Had five children: Rosetta Douglass. And Annie Douglass (died at the age of ten). Charles and Rosetta helped produce his newspapers.Anna Douglass remained a loyal supporter of her husband's public work. His relationships with Julia Griffiths. Two women with whom he was professionally involved, caused recurring speculation and scandals. Assing was a journalist recently immigrated from Germany, who first visited Douglass in 1856 seeking permission to translate My Bondage and My Freedom into German. Until 1872, she often stayed at his house "for several months at a time" as his intellectual and emotional companion. Assing held Anna Douglass "in utter contempt" and was vainly hoping that Douglass would separate from his wife. Blight concludes that Assing and Douglass were probably lovers. Though Douglass and Assing are widely believed to have had an intimate relationship, the surviving correspondence contains no proof of such a relationship. After Anna died in 1882, in 1884 Douglass married again, to Helen Pitts.
A white suffragist and abolitionist from Honeoye, New York. Pitts was the daughter of Gideon Pitts Jr. An abolitionist colleague and friend of Douglass's. A graduate of Mount Holyoke College.
(then called Mount Holyoke Female Seminary), Pitts worked on a radical feminist publication named Alpha while living in Washington, D. She later worked as Douglass's secretary. Assing, who had depression and was diagnosed with incurable breast cancer, committed suicide in France in 1884 after hearing of the marriage.
The marriage of Douglass and Pitts provoked a storm of controversy, since Pitts was both white and nearly 20 years younger. Her family stopped speaking to her; his children considered the marriage a repudiation of their mother. But feminist Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Douglass responded to the criticisms by saying that his first marriage had been to someone the color of his mother, and his second to someone the color of his father.
Final years in Washington, D. The Freedman's Savings Bank went bankrupt on June 29, 1874, just a few months after Douglass became its president in late March.During that same economic crisis, his final newspaper, The New National Era , failed in September. Was elected president, he named Douglass as United States Marshal. For the District of Columbia. The first person of color to be so named. The Senate voted to confirm him on March 17, 1877.
Douglass accepted the appoint, which helped assure his family's financial security. However, Douglass believed that no covert racism. Was implied by the omission, and stated that he was always warmly welcomed in presidential circles. Douglass's house in the Anacostia. Is preserved as a National Historic Site.In 1877, Douglass visited his former slavemaster Thomas Auld on his deathbed, and the two men reconciled. Douglass had met Auld's daughter, Amanda Auld Sears, some years prior. She had requested the meeting and had subsequently attended and cheered one of Douglass's speeches.
Her father complimented her for reaching out to Douglass. The visit also appears to have brought closure to Douglass, although some criticized his effort. That same year, Douglass bought the house that was to be the family's final home in Washington, D. On a hill above the Anacostia River. He and Anna named it Cedar Hill (also spelled CedarHill).
They expanded the house from 14 to 21 rooms, and included a china closet. The home is now preserved as the Frederick Douglass National Historic Site. In 1881, Douglass published the final edition of his autobiography, The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass. That year he was appointed as Recorder of Deeds.
His wife Anna Murray Douglass died in 1882, leaving the widower devastated. After a period of mourning, Douglass found new meaning from working with activist Ida B. He remarried in 1884, as mentioned above.
Douglass also continued his speaking engagements and travel, both in the United States and abroad. With new wife Helen, Douglass traveled to England, Ireland, France, Italy, Egypt and Greece from 1886 to 1887. He became known for advocating Irish Home Rule. And supported Charles Stewart Parnell.In addition to his travel abroad during those years, he lectured in small towns in the United States. On December 28, 1885, the aging orator spoke to the literary society in Rising Sun. A town in northeastern Maryland below the MasonDixon line.
The program, "The Self-Made Man, " attracted a large audience including students from Lincoln University in Chester County, PA, the Oxford Press reported. Douglass is growing old and has lost much of his fire and vigor of mind as well as body, but he is still able to interest an audience.He is a remarkable man and is a bright example of the capability of the colored race, even under the blighting influence of slavery, from which he emerged and became one of the distinguished citizens of the country, the Chester County PA newspaper remarked. The gravestone of Frederick Douglass located in Mount Hope Cemetery, Rochester. At the 1888 Republican National Convention. Douglass became the first African American to receive a vote for President of the United States in a major party. That year, Douglass spoke at Claflin College. And the state's oldest such institution. Many African Americans, called Exodusters. Escaped the Klan and racially discriminatory laws in the South by moving to Kansas. Where some formed all-black towns to have a greater level of freedom and autonomy. Douglass did not favor this, nor the Back-to-Africa movement. He thought the latter resembled the American Colonization Society. Which he had opposed in his youth. In 1892, at an Indianapolis conference convened by Bishop Henry McNeal Turner.
Douglass spoke out against the separatist movements, urging blacks to stick it out. He made similar speeches as early as 1879, and was criticized both by fellow leaders and some audiences, who even booed him for this position.Speaking in Baltimore in 1894, Douglass said, I hope and trust all will come out right in the end, but the immediate future looks dark and troubled. I cannot shut my eyes to the ugly facts before me. Appointed Douglass as the United States's minister resident and consul-general. To the Republic of Haiti. But Douglass resigned the commission in July 1891 when it became apparent that the American President was intent upon gaining permanent access to Haitian territory regardless of that country's desires.
In 1892, Haiti made Douglass a co-commissioner of its pavilion at the World's Columbian Exposition. In 1892, Douglass constructed rental housing for blacks, now known as Douglass Place. The complex still exists, and in 2003 was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. On February 20, 1895, Douglass attended a meeting of the National Council of Women in Washington, D.
During that meeting, he was brought to the platform and received a standing ovation. His funeral was held at the Metropolitan African Methodist Episcopal Church. Thousands of people passed by his coffin to show their respect. Although Douglass had attended several churches in the nation's capital, he had a pew here and had donated two standing candelabras when this church had moved to a new building in 1886.
He also gave many lectures there, including his last major speech, The Lesson of the Hour. Douglass's coffin was transported to Rochester, New York. Where he had lived for 25 years, longer than anywhere else in his life.
He was buried next to Anna in the Douglass family plot of Mount Hope Cemetery. Helen was also buried there in 1903.
Not to be confused with Harper's Magazine. Or Harpers Wine & Spirit. Harper's Weekly cover featuring President-Elect Abraham Lincoln.
From a photograph by Mathew Brady. New York City, New York. Harper's Weekly, A Journal of Civilization was an American political magazine based in New York City.
Published by Harper & Brothers. From 1857 until 1916, it featured foreign and domestic news, fiction, essays on many subjects, and humor, alongside illustrations.
It carried extensive coverage of the American Civil War. Including many illustrations of events from the war.
During its most influential period, it was the forum of the political cartoonist Thomas Nast. John and Joseph Wesley Harper (1860). Along with his brothers James, John, and Wesley, Fletcher Harper. Began the publishing company Harper & Brothers.
Following the successful example of The Illustrated London News. Harper started publishing Harper's Magazine.The monthly publication featured established authors such as Charles Dickens. And within several years, demand for the magazine was great enough to sustain a weekly edition. In 1857, his company began publishing Harper's Weekly in New York City.
By 1860 the circulation of the Weekly had reached 200,000. Illustrations were an important part of the Weekly' s content, and it developed a reputation for using some of the most renowned illustrators of the time, notably Winslow Homer. Among the recurring features were the political cartoons. Who was recruited in 1862 and worked with the Weekly for more than 20 years.Nast was a feared caricaturist, and is often called the father of American political cartooning. He was the first to use an elephant as the symbol of the Republican Party. He also drew the legendary character of Santa Claus.
Harper's Weekly artist Alfred Waud. Portraits of escaped slave Gordon. Sherman's burning of McPhersonville, South Carolina.
Harper's Weekly was the most widely read journal in the United States throughout the period of the Civil War. So as not to upset its wide readership in the South.Harper's took a moderate editorial position on the issue of slavery. Prior to the outbreak of the war. Publications that supported abolition referred to it as "Harper's Weakly". The Weekly had supported the Stephen A. Presidential campaign against Abraham Lincoln.
But as the American Civil War. Broke out, it fully supported Lincoln and the Union. A July 1863 article on the escaped slave Gordon.Included a photograph of his back, severely scarred from whippings; this provided many readers in the North their first visual evidence of the brutality of slavery. The photograph inspired many free blacks in the North to enlist. Some of the most important articles and illustrations of the time were Harper's reporting on the war. Besides renderings by Homer and Nast, the magazine also published illustrations by Theodore R. In 1863, George William Curtis. One of the founders of the Republican Party, became the political editor of the magazine, and remained in that capacity until his death in 1892.
His editorials advocated civil service. And adherence to the gold standard.Caricature of William "Boss" Tweed. "No rest for the wickedsentenced to more hard labor": Self-caricature by Thomas Nast on the cover of Harper's Weekly (December 2, 1876).
Harper's Weekly cover featuring Theodore Roosevelt. After the war, Harper's Weekly more openly supported the Republican Party in its editorial positions, and contributed to the election of Ulysses S. It supported the Radical Republican.
In the 1870s, the cartoonist Thomas Nast began an aggressive campaign in the journal against the corrupt New York political leader William "Boss" Tweed. Tweed was arrested in 1873 and convicted of fraud. Nast and Harper's also played an important part in securing Rutherford B.Later on Hayes remarked that Nast was "the most powerful, single-handed aid [he] had". After the election, Nast's role in the magazine diminished considerably. Since the late 1860s, Nast and George W. Curtis had frequently differed on political matters and particularly on the role of cartoons in political discourse. Curtis believed that mockery by caricature should be reserved for Democrats, and did not approve of Nast's cartoons assailing Republicans such as Carl Schurz. Who opposed policies of the Grant administration. Harper's publisher Fletcher Harper strongly supported Nast in his disputes with Curtis. In 1877, Harper died, and his nephews, Joseph W. And John Henry Harper, assumed control of the magazine. They were more sympathetic to Curtis' arguments for rejecting cartoons that contradicted his editorial positions. In 1884, however, Curtis and Nast agreed that they could not support the Republican candidate James G. Whose association with corruption was anathema to them.
Instead they supported the Democratic candidate, Grover Cleveland. Nast's cartoons helped Cleveland become the first Democrat to be elected president since 1856. In the words of the artist's grandson, Thomas Nast St Hill, it was generally conceded that Nast's support won Cleveland the small margin by which he was elected.
In his last national political campaign, Nast had, in fact,'made a president. Nast's final contribution to Harper's Weekly was his Christmas illustration in December 1886. Said that in quitting Harper's Weekly , Nast lost his forum: in losing him, Harper's Weekly lost its political importance. Nast's biographer Fiona Deans Halloran says the former is true to a certain extent, the latter unlikely.
Readers may have missed Nast's cartoons, but Harper's Weekly remained influential. Harper's Weekly editor 190113. After 1900, Harper's Weekly devoted more print to political and social issues, and featured articles by some of the more prominent political figures of the time, such as Theodore Roosevelt.
Harper's editor George Harvey. Was an early supporter of Woodrow Wilson. S candidacy, proposing him for the Presidency at a Lotos Club. After that dinner, Harvey would make sure that he emblazoned each issue of Harper's Weekly with the words'For PresidentWoodrow Wilson. Harper's Weekly published its final issue on May 13, 1916.It was absorbed by The Independent. Which in turn merged with The Outlook. The item "FREDERICK DOUGLASS COVER PORTRAIT IN ORIGINAL FULL ISSUE OF HARPERS WEEKLY" is in sale since Friday, December 3, 2021.
This item is in the category "Books & Magazines\Antiquarian & Collectible". The seller is "funbooks" and is located in New York, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.